a: Partial picture of Lake Tawani(P) in Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. b: The satellite picture of Lake Tawani(P) and its vicinity. Note the continuation of the channel from the Lake Tawani(P) to the ice-shelf along a lineament marking the presence of a fossil valley and beyond connecting landlocked and proglacial lakes. Lake Tawani(P) is situated in this fossil valley and acts as a catchment for the overflow of snow and glacial melt feeding the lake. The inset is the Google Earth (http://maps.google.com) satellite picture showing Lake Tawani(P). c: Actual location where samples were collected in Lake Tawani(P). The red dots indicate the rock-water interface in which sample collection occurred.