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Table 3 Effects of replacement of fish meal (FM) with vital wheat gluten (VWG) on growth performance, N and P losses, and whole body composition of several species of fish

From: Use of vital wheat gluten in aquaculture feeds

Species Duration (d.) FM (%CP1) VWG (%CP) Other PP2(%CP) CP in diet (%) Lys. Supp. (% diet) iBW (g) Main results Reference
Atlantic salmon 126 100 0 No 41.3 No 952 Similar growth - No modification in the mucosa of the posterior intestine. [8]
65 35 No 39.6 No 956
Nile tilapia 49 88 0 No 32.5 No 56.4 Similar growth with VWG as with FM. Higher non faecal N losses with VWG than with FM. Lower faecal P losses than with FM. Same protein, fat and phosphorus body composition with VWG as with FM. [40]
58.3 32.8 No 34.7 No 55.6
Rainbow trout 60 50 23.7 No 30.3 1.40 50 Similar growth with FM diet and when FM is totally replaced with a mixture of VWG and crystalline amino acids. [9]
0 77.0 No 31.6 2.50 50
Rainbow trout 65 72 0 SBM3: 23; 45.5 No 23.7 Better growth and feed efficiency with VWG and 0.29% Lys than with the FM diet. Greater apparent net protein utilisation and protein efficiency ratio. No modification of protein and lipid content in carcasses. [20]
31 53 WM3: 5SBM: 6; WM: 5 46.6 0.29 23.7
European sea bass 96 100 0 No 49.9 No 23.9 Weight gain slightly lower in fish fed with 70% VWG and no change in feed conversion ratio. Same faecal, retention and metabolic losses of N. [10]
50 50 No 49.7 0.20 23.9
30 70 No 49.9 0.80 23.9
Sea bream 85 95 0 No 44.8 No 41.6 Significantly higher weight gain and feed efficiency with VWG than with FM. Same productive protein value and higher energy retention value with VWG than with FM. Same protein, lipid, energy, and phosphorus body composition with VWG as with FM. [39]
   0 88 No 45.1 2.10 41.2   
  1. 1CP: Crude Protein; 2PP: Plant Protein; 3SBM: Soybean Meal; WM: Wheat Middlings.