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Table 1 Effects of adding glutamine on growth performance, gut structure and activity, and immune parameters in different species of fish

From: Use of vital wheat gluten in aquaculture feeds

Species Physiologic status Trial period (d) Proteins in diets Glutamine (Gln% in diet) Main results Reference
Jian carp Cyprinus carpio Juvenile iBW1 = 7.78 g 80 35% FM2; 20.5% Rice Gluten Meal; CP3 = 33% Substitution of glycine by Gln 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0 Performance [32]
Percent weight gain, feed efficiency, and productive protein linearly increase until 1.2% and reach a plateau afterwards.
Gut morphology and activity
Intestine fold height, and gut  
length and weight linearly increase until 1.2% and reach a plateau afterwards.
Protease, lipase, AKP, and Na,K-ATPase activities linearly increase until 1.2% and reach a plateau afterwards in the 3 segments of gut.
Hybrid sturgeon Acipencer schrenckii × Huso dauricus Juvenile iBW = 22.38 g 56 20% SBM2; 10% Blood Meal; 20% FM; 8% Corn Protein; CP = 44.8% Substitution of SPC2 by HWG2 (0 to 5%) or by Aln-Gln (1%) 0, 0.63* 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5** Performance [28, 29]
Relative Growth Rate and feed efficiency linearly increase from 0 to 1.2% of Gln in HWG and increase with free Gln.
Gut morphology and activity
Intestine fold height, and gut length and weight linearly increase from 0 to 1.2% of Gln in HWG and increase with free Gln. Protease, amylase, lipase, and Na,K-ATPase activities linearly increase until 1.2% of Gln in HWG and increase with free Gln in the 3 segments of gut.
Immune response and antioxidant status
Glutathione peroxydase, glutataione, and superoxide dismutase concentrations linearly increase whereas malondialdehyde concentrations decrease until 1.2% Gln in HWG and with free Gln in intestine, hepatopancreas, and muscle.
Modulation of serum non-specific immune parameters according to a quadratic response with 0 to 1.5% Gln in HWG. Linearly increase of serum concentrations of C3 and C4 with addition of free Gln.
Hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops × Morone saxatilis Juvenile iBW = 4.12 g 56 34.6% Menhaden FM; 29.6% SBM; CP = 45% Substitution of glycine by Gln 0, 1, 2 Performance [27]
Specific Growth Rate and feed efficiency increase with 1% of Gln, not with 2%.
Gut morphology  
No change in pyloric caeca. Enterocyte and microvillus heights in distal intestine and fold length in the proximal intestine increase with Gln. Immune response Higher serum lysozyme activity with 1% Gln. Increased extracellular superoxide anion production with 1% and 2% Gln.
Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Juvenile iBW = 6.1 g 70 13.4% casein; 3.76% gelatine; 7.1% of amino-acid premix; CP = 28% 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 Performance [26]
No significant effect on growth performance. Increase of lipids in carcasses with 2 and 3% Gln.
      Gut morphology Mucosal fold length, enterocyte height and microvilli height increase until 2% Gln in the 3 segments of intestine.  
  1. 1iBW: initial Body Weight; 2FM: Fish Meal, SBM: Soybean Meal, SPC: Soy Protein Concentrate, HWG: Hydrolysed Wheat Gluten 3CP: Crude Protein.
  2. *Inclusion of 1% Aln-Gln; **: inclusion of 0 to 5% Hydrolysed wheat gluten.