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Table 2 Extremophilic enzymes in biotechnology

From: Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity

Name Organism Activity Application(s) Reference(s)
   Salt Cold Organic solvent   
Amylase Pseudoalterimonas sp. +    *Saccharification of marine microalgae, saccharification of marine microalgae producing ethanol [170]
Amylase Halococcus sp. +   + Starch hydrolysis in industrial processes in saline and organic solvent medium [171]
Amylase Streptomyces sp. +    Detergent formulations [172]
Alcohol dehydrogenase Rhodococcus sp.    + *Enantioselective oxidation of sec-alcohol and the asymmetric reduction of ketones [173]
Alkaline phosphatase Antarctic bacteria strain HK47   +   *Radioactive end-labeling of nucleic acids [174]
Alkaline phosphatase Antarctic strain TAB5   +   *Dephosphorylation of DNA vectors [84]
β-galactosidase Pseudoalteromonas sp.   +   *Lactose hydrolysis [175]
β-galactosidase Kluyveromyces sp.    + *Synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose [176]
β-galactosidase Arthrobacter sp.   +   Lactose hydrolysis at low temperature, production of ethanol from lactose-based feedstock [177]
β-galactosidase Bacillus sp.    + *Synthesis of N-acetyl-lactosamine [178]
Chitinase Halobacterium sp. +   + Oligosaccharide synthesis [179]
Chitinase Virgibacillus sp. +    Bioconversion of chitin from fish, crab or shrimp; treatment of chitinous waste [180]
Cholesterol oxidase Pseudomonas sp.    + Organic synthesis [181]
Glutaminase Micrococcus sp. +    Flavor-enhancing in food industries, antileukaemic agent [182]
Esterase Pyrobaculum sp.    + Organic synthesis [183]
Esterase Pseudoalteromonas sp.   +   Hydrolyzing esters of medical relevance [184]
Lipase Candida sp.   +   *Organic synthesis related to food/feed processing, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics [185]
Lipase Rhizopus sp., Candida sp.    + Biodiesel production [101103]
Lipase Candida sp.    + Biodiesel production [104, 105]
Lipase Pseudoalteromonas sp., Psychrobacter sp., Vibrio sp.   + + Detergent formulations and bioremediation of fat-contaminated aqueous systems [186]
Lipase Staphylococcus sp.   +   Detergent formulations [187]
Lipase Psuedomonas sp.    + Biodiesel production [106, 107]
Lipase Salinivibrio sp. +    Detergent formulations and fatty acid degradations [188]
Lipase Psuedomonas sp.    + Solvent bioremediation, biotransformations and detergent formulations [189]
Lipase Marinobacter sp. +   + *Hydrolysis of fish oil into free eicosapentaenoic acid [190]
Nuclease Micrococcus sp. +    *Production of the flavoring agent 5'-guanylic acid [191]
Pectinase Pseudoalteromonas sp.   + + Enhancing extraction yield, clarification,
and taste of fruit juices
[192]
Protease Halobacterium sp. +   + *Peptide synthesis [193, 194]
Protease Pseudomonas sp.    + *Synthesis of N-carbobenzoxy-L-arginine-L-leucine amide, N-carbobenzoxy-L-alanine-L-leucine amide and aspartame precursor [195, 196]
Protease Pseudomonas sp.    + Peptide synthesis [197]
Protease Bacillus sp.   +   *Cleansing of contact lenses [198]
Protease Natrialba sp. +   + *Synthesis of tripeptide Ac-Phe-Gly-Phe-NH2 [199]
Protease Halobacterium sp. +    *Fish sauce preparation [200]
Protease Geomicrobium sp. +   + Peptide synthesis, detergent formulations [201, 202]
Xylanase Pseudoalteromonas sp.   +   *Baking industry for increasing loaf volume [203, 204]
Xylanase Bacillus sp. +    Xylan biodegradation in pulp and paper industry [205, 206]
  1. * applications established in laboratory and/or industry