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Table 1 Halotolerant or halophilic microorganisms that can transport betaine or ectoinse from the medium.

From: Organic compatible solutes of halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms

Solute & Organism Comments Reference
Acinetobacter sp. F-2-12 in 20% NaCl, cells accumulate 1.26 M betaine and 0.36 M glutamate [16]
Actinopolyspora halophila cells can synthesize it de novo (oxidation of choline) as well as transport it from the medium [36]
Alcaligenes sp. F-5-7 ~1 M betaine when cells grown in complex medium in 20% NaCl [16]
Alteromonas sp. A-387   [16]
Chromohalobacter israelensis betaine in the medium suppresses ectoine biosynthesis [26]
Chromobacterium marismortui A-65 in 20% NaCl, cells accumulate 0.5 M betaine and 0.10 M glutamate [16]
Corynebacterium glutamicum has genes for four uptake systems including high affinity BetP and a low capacity osmoregulated permease [111]
Desulfovibrio halophilus 1 mM external betaine suppresses sucrose synthesis [37]
Listeria monocytogenes halotolerant organism also accumulates acetylcarnitine, carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine and 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate [110]
Marinococcus halophilus BCCT family transporter BetM [109]
Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1 accumulation of external betaine suppresses synthesis of osmolytes; bta gene responsible for ABC transporter activated by heat and salt stress [8]
Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 ota gene responds to salt shock [113]
Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 High affinity ABC transporter [112]
Nesterenkonia halobia CCM 2591 in 20% NaCl, betaine is 1.10 M while glutamate is 0.05 M [16]
Pseudomonas sp. F-12-1   [16]
Tetragenococcus halophilus single component transporter (ButA) that is a member of BCCT family; specific for betaine [108]
Salinivibrio costicola A-514   [16]
Halomonas elongata transporter similar to tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter family (TRAP-T) [116]
Marinococcus halophilus role likely to be recovery of leaked ectoine [109]
Sinorhizobium meliloti ABC ectoine transporter identified [117]